All-purpose space vehicle proposed by Douglas Missile & Space Systems Division engineer Phil Bono, is pictured in artist’s concept during refueling in earth orbit prior to flight to the moon.
Refueling tankers, on either side will return to earth. Vehicle carries up to eight “strap-on” liquid hydrogen tanks, which can be ejected after they are emptied or retained for use on moon. Retro engines are fire as spacecraft nears lunar surface to allow a direct landing without an orbital maneuver. All-purpose space vehicle proposed by Douglas Missile & Space Systems Division engineer Phil Bono, is pictured in artist’s concept during refueling in earth orbit prior to flight to the moon.
Empty strap-on tanks are lowered to lunar surface before each return flight.
These liquid hydrogen tanks could be used as shelter for pioneering lunar colony.
Extraterrestrial explorers, in space suits, gather samples from strange planet, to determine its adaptability to supporting human life.
SPACE SUIT SYSTEMS – While space suits are unnecessary within the spaceship, they are vital for activities outside the vessel, or on asteroids or planets. (A) direct audio communications aerial; (B)(J) receiving aerial (also serves as suit zipper); (C) unbreakable glass visor; (D) helmet visor to be lowered against strong light or radiation; (E) voice diaphragm; (F) electric systems; (G) microphone; (H) tools and suit controls (heat, etc.) (I) nitrogen inflation nozzle; (K) flexible metal gloves; (L) magnetic and heated shoes.
DIRECT RADITATION SYSTEM – Useful for relatively longer mission durations such as one or two months. This could be a lunar observation or space laboratory type mission. Because of the weight penalty resulting in the need to store a large quantity of expendable liquid such a system can no longer be considered for mission durations exceeding one or two weeks. Where the storage of relatively larger food quantities is required, a satisfactory system would be one in which heat is conducted away from the food to a fin providing a large surface area for direct radiation of the heat to space. Such a system would operate best if the radiating surfaces were to face away from the sun. The fin is therefore shown attached to a solar collector (part of another system) which is maintained in an orientation always facing the sun. The large radiator surfaces will then face away from the sun. The food stored by such a system would again be provided in special containers to permit eating in the absence of gravity. Special provisions such as suction cups on the food containers permit the astronaut to stand the food containers on table or shelf. Magnetic shoes permit him to walk about the cabin in the usual manner.
Space escape capsule. After escape from damaged ship, rescue is possible from this “lifeboat’ of space.
Transferring from shuttle ship to space ship in orbit. Larger ships need not land on moon or planet.
NEEDLE SPRAY BATH SYSTEM – Water on long missions must be closed-system, used over and over for all purposes. Waste water collected from all sources, redistilled and purified is shown here being used for a full bath. Heat is procured from the solar collector, is removed via the distillation process, and in turn converted into electricity to run the motors controlling the needle sprays on circulating system. Degradable detergents are used instead of soap, and recovered for reuse in the distillation process.
WASHROOM AND TOILET SYSTEMS – Hand and face are miniature needle spray systems, used for ablutions and for face rinse after shaving. Toilet facilities operate on air-suction principle, and all water is removed from wastes and purified for re-use in the entire bathroom system.
Manned lunar roving vehicle, capable of maneuvering about the airless desert landscape.
CONCEPT OF A MANNED ORBITING RESEARCH LABORATORY, which has been under research study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is illustrated in this artist’s rendering. The concept evolved from by the Douglas Missile & Space Administration under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center. Douglas engineers believe the concept could be operational within a five-year period. A Gemini-type ferry-craft approaches the orbiting laboratory, which is designed to remain in a 200 nautical-mile earth orbit for a period of a year or more.
One concept of a Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory (MORL), which has been under research study for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, would occupy a cylinder 260 inches in diameter. Inside the cylinder, a spherical vessel might house living and work spaces and an on-board centrifuge for maintaining crew fitness. In this artist’s concept, evolved by Douglas Aircraft Company’s Missile & Space Systems Division under NASA contract, living quarters are shown on the upper left, a centrifuge in the center, and working area at the right. The Douglas concept is based on the Saturn IB launch vehicle.
MANNED ORBITING RESEARCH LABORATORY (MORL) concept, which has been under research study by National Aeronautical and Space Administration, is pictured in a 200 nautical-mile earth orbit in this artist’s rendering. The concept evolved from studies made by Douglas Aircraft Company’s Missile & Space Division under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center. A Gemini-type ferry craft which might transport crew and supplies from Earth is docked in a hangar in the laboratory’s nose cone. Once rendezvous and docking are complete, the hangar can be sealed and pressurized and the astronauts can enter the MORL. Paddle-like devices attached to the orbiting laboratory are solar cell arrays to convert energy from the sun. They would be unfolded after MORL was in orbit.
A manned orbital space space laboratory would be able to operate for several months without resupply. Basic Garrett-AiResearch systems could be slightly modified to meet requirements for environmental control, life support, cryogenic storage, power and attitude control for both the command module and laboratory.
The Marquardt Corporation is conducting studies under contract to North American’s Space and Information Systems Division on advanced rocket reaction control systems for Apollo X. The Extended Apollo Mission is depicted above in conjunction with a space laboratory system, one of several concepts to determine additional applications of the Apollo spacecraft by NASA. Marquardt’s four-engine reaction control system cluster is illustrated above on the surface of the Apollo X service module. Similar systems are being developed by Marquardt for the current Project Apollo lunar mission on both the service and lunar excursion module.